C – Dictionary

C…

C1, C2, C3, C4, …… A single finger holding multiple strings on a stringed instrument  at the same time.

CI, CII, CIII, CIV, CV, CVI…… A single finger holding multiple strings on a stringed instrument  at the same time. Symbol used in standard notation for guitar. Roman numeral (after C) indicates which fret. Example: B7 (C7, CVII, VII) See Barre

C clef clef sign that marks the position of the note C on the staff. See clef in Staff, Barline, & Clef

Ca…

Cacophony discordant or dissonant sound

Cadence a note ornament see cadence in Note Ornamentation

Cadence calls songs sung by soldiers while marching

Calando (Italian) diminuendo

Calcando (Italian) accelerando

Calmato (Italian) calmed, calming

Calme (French) calm

Calore (Italian) passion, warmth or animation

Caloroso (Italian) passion, warmth or animation

Calvarios Spanish Easter songs

Calypso Caribbean popular musical form often humorous sung by a single guitarist or bands

Camatillo Rosewood From Central America, it is sometimes known as Mexican Kingwood.The wood has a deep, rich purple color with numerous black ink lines. Straight grain is rare but it is surprisingly stable. see Wood Choices for Back & Sides see Alternative Wood Choices for Back & Sides see Anatomy of a Classical Guitar 

Camminando (Italian) a flowing style, a walking pace

Camphor Burl An alternative wood for the back and sides of a classical guitar. see Wood Choices for Back & Sides see Alternative Wood Choices for Back & Sides see Anatomy of a Classical Guitar

Canadian Cypress Alaskan Yellow Cedar, sometimes called Canadian or New World Cypress, is fine and even textured with very close grains. In terms of dimensional change due to moisture content change, it is one of the most stable. It is light yellow in color. see Wood Choices for Back & Sides see Alternative Wood Choices for Back & Sides see Anatomy of a Classical Guitar

Canari very fast gigue-like dance, in triple or duple-compound meter, with a ‘skipping’ feel

Cancel natural sign, used to remove a previously applied accidental

Can-can Parisian dance, originating in Paris, involving a line of high-kicking women

Cancrizans (Latin) a tune repeated so that the original order of notes is reversed— the last note become the first, the penultimate note becomes the second, and so on until the first becomes the last

Canon a musical form in which a (second, third, fourth, ….) line starting later than the one before it matches it note for note but such that the parts overlap

Cans headphones, microphone and belt pack

Cantabile (Italian) in a singing style

Cantando (Italian) in a singing style

Cantaor (Spanish) flamenco singer (masc.)

Cantaora (Italian) in a singing style (femin.)

Cant de la sibila traditional Christmas song from Majorca (Spain) about the second coming of Christ

Cante chico light flamenco song

Cante grande profound Flamenco song style

Cante hondo (Spanish) serious Spanish flamenco song making use of the Phrygian cadence and the word ole

Cante jondo (Spanish) serious Spanish flamenco song making use of the Phrygian cadence and the word ole

Cantes de las minas flamenco style that has as theme the mines, its men and their difficulties

Cantes extremeños flamenco songs from the Extremadura region

Canticle a Biblical hymn

Cantilena (Italian) Lullaby–smooth, melodious vocal style

Canto (Italian) song, melody

Canto de velada Spanish evening song

Canto hondo (Spanish) serious Spanish flamenco song making use of the Phrygian cadence and the word ole

Cantus (Latin) melody at the top of a polyphonic piece, often set over a tenor line

Canzonet (Italian) short, simple song

Canzonetta (Italian) short, simple song

Caoine (Gaelic) Irish funeral song

Capelle (French) chapel

Capodaster (German) device that clamps to the neck of a guitar and which change its tuning by shortening the sounding length of every string

Capodastère (French) device that clamps to the neck of a guitar and which change its tuning by shortening the sounding length of every string

Capotasto (Italian) device that clamps to the neck of a guitar and which change its tuning by shortening the sounding length of every string

Capo d’astro (Italian) device that clamps to the neck of a guitar and which change its tuning by shortening the sounding length of every string

Capodastro (Italian) device that clamps to the neck of a guitar and which change its tuning by shortening the sounding length of every string

Cappella chapel

Capriccio (Italian) light, quick, sometimes fanciful composition

Capriccioso (Italian) capricious

Caprice (English) light, quick, sometimes fanciful composition

Caprice (French) light, quick, sometimes fanciful composition

Capricieux (French) capricious

Capricciosamente (Italian) capriciously

Carcassi, Matteo (1792-1853) see Classical Guitarists and Composers

Carcelera (Spanish) prisoner’s song

Caressant (French) caressing

Carezzando (Italian) caressing

Carezzevole (Italian) caressingly

Carol (English) Christmas song

Carrée (French) double whole note see Note Values   

Carulli, Fernando (1770-1841) see Classical Guitarists and Composers

Catgut (German) good, well; (English) a cord made from the intestines of animals, esp. of sheep, lambs or goats, used for strings of early guitars

Cavaquinho small 4-stringed instrument from Portugal and the Portuguese-speaking countries, used in samba music. inspiration for the Hawaiian ukulele

Cc…

C clef clef sign that marks the position of the note C on the staff. See clef in Staff, Barline, & Clef

Ce…

Cédez (French) slow down generally before a return to an earlier tempo

Cejilla device that can be moved to change the pitch of the flamenco guitar

Celere (Italian) quick, speedy

Celerità (Italian) speed

Celeramente speedily

Celtic harp small harp 24 to 34 strings, around 1 metre tall, with curved neck and pillar that is played resting on the knee

Cent logarithmic unit used when measuring the difference between two pitches in an equal-tempered scale; one cent is one one-hundredth of an equal-tempered semitone (half step)

Center Seam Backstrip The Backstrip, usually made of wood, will match or compliment the guitars edge binding. It will also reinforce the center seam of a book-matched back of a guitar.see Anatomy of a Classical Guitar

Center Seam Reinforcement Strip A strip of wood is added to the seam of a book-matched back for reinforcement on a guitar. see Anatomy of a Classical Guitar

Cf…

cf (Latin) abbreviated form of conferatur meaning ‘compare’

Ch…

Chaabi popular Arabic music, also known as shaabi

Chacarrá fandango dance from Tarifa, in southern Spain, performed by two women and one man

Chace (French) fourteenth-century French term for ‘canon’, two- and three-voice canons that imitated bird calls or the sounds of instruments, …..

Chachachá considered to be the first chachachá, in 1953. As a dance, cha cha became popular in the 1950s and 1960s and is descended from mambo through triple mambo. It is in 4/4 time and follows a rhythmic pattern two quarter-notes, three eighth-notes and a eighth-rest

Chaconne a slow stately dance with variations, popular during the seventeenth- and eighteenth-centuries, generally in triple time, played over a ground bass

Chacony (Old Eng.) a slow stately dance with variations, popular during the seventeenth- and eighteenth-centuries, generally in triple time, played over a ground bass

Chaleur (French) warmth, with warmth

Chaleureusement (French) warmth, with warmth

Chamber a prefix used to describe small-scale musical activities, for example- chamber symphony (a symphony for a small ensemble of players), chamber music (music generally written to be played one-to-a-part)

Champeta criolla Afro-Colombian music style and dance from Cartagena, on the Caribbean coast

Champêtre (French) rustic

Changed note device in strict counterpoint where a non-harmonic note is used on an accented beat

Changes the set of chord changes, or harmonies, contained in the central theme or melody around which a piece has been built

Changez (French) change

Changing notes non-harmonic notes; two notes, one that leaves the chord note by a tone or semitone, then leaps to the next non-harmonic note by skipping over the chord note, before resolving to the same chord note by a tone or semitone

Changing time signatures see Time Signatures

Chantant (French) in a singing style

Chaque (French) each, every

Character piece a musical piece representing a location, mood or personality

Charango small, 5-course, double strung guitar from South America, traditionally made with the shell of an armadillo

Chart colloquial or jazz term for a arrangement or score

Chase improvisations where one player performs a melodic riff and other members in the band take up the theme, often adding additional phrases, each trying to outplay the others

Che (Italian) who, which

Chechen An alternative wood for the back and sides of a classical guitar. see Wood Choices for Back & Sides see Alternative Wood Choices for Back & Sides see Anatomy of a Classical Guitar

Chechen Burl An alternative wood for the back and sides of a classical guitar. see Wood Choices for Back & Sides see Alternative Wood Choices for Back & Sides see Anatomy of a Classical Guitar

Cheese cloth A thin, loose woven cotton cloth, such as is used in pressing cheese curds. see How to Change Classical  Guitar Strings 

Chevalet (French) bridge of a stringed instrument

Cheville (French) peg of a stringed instrument

Chiaro (Italian) clear

Chiara (Italian) unconfused

Chiaramente (Italian) clearly

Chiarezza (Italian) clarity

Chiave (Italian) clef see Staff, Barline, & Clef

Chiave di basso (Italian) bass clef see Staff, Barline, & Clef

Chiave di tenore (Italian) C clef see Staff, Barline, & Clef

Chiave di violino (Italian) treble clef see Staff, Barline, & Clef

Chin chin Chinese 4 string banjo with aluminum body

Chitarra (Italian) guitar

Chitarra batente guitar from Calabria (southern Italy), also known as ‘Renaissance guitar’. With four or five metal strings

Chitarrone a long-necked member of the lute family fitted with extra bass strings, used to accompany solo singers, which was popular in the sixteenth- and seventeenth-centuries

Chops performer’s technique when playing riffs, improvisations and melodic lines

Choral music sung by a choir

Choral symphony a symphony that includes a chorus

Chorale (German) traditional German hymn

Chord a group of notes, normally two or more, played simultaneously

Chordal a form of music in which a single melody is accompanied by sets of chords,

instead of a competing counter melody

Chord diagrams a form of musical notation using vertical and horizontal lines to represent the strings and frets on a guitar that uses numbered dots to show the position of the fingers.

Chord symbols abbreviations for chord names used by players of the guitar, ukulele….

Chorus a fairly large choir; a refrain of a song

Chromatic a scale in which all the intervals between succeeding notes is a semitone (half-note)

Chromatic interval a note that does not form part of the major or natural, melodic or harmonic minor scales

Chromatic scale Scale composed of twelve half steps. see Chromatic scale see Musical Scales

Chromatic signs accidentals

Chromatique (French) chromatic

Church Cadence Plagal Cadence. A chord progression where the subdominant chord is followed by the tonic chord- In the tonality of C major, an plagal cadence would be the subdominant f major chord (F A C) moving to the tonic C major chord (C E G). see Musical Cadences

Ci…

CI, CII, CIII, CIV, CV, CVI…… A single finger holding multiple strings on a stringed instrument  at the same time. Symbol used in standard notation for guitar. Roman numeral (after C) indicates which fret. Example: B7 (C7, CVII, VII) See Barre

Ciacona (Italian) slow stately dance with variations, popular during the seventeenth- and eighteenth-centuries, generally in triple time, played over a ground bass

Cinq (French) five

Cinque (Italian) five

Cinquième (French) fifth

Cioà (Italian) that is

Circle of fifths chain of intervals. each interval a fifth, after passing through every note of the scale returns to a note, several octaves different, from that on which the chain began. see Circle of Fifths

Cl…

Clangorous containing partials that are not part of the natural harmonic series. Clangorous tones often sound bell-like

Claque (French) members of an audience, hired by a performer, usually to respond rapturously and loudly during the performance including calling for frequent encores, audience response

Clarity Free from obscurity and easy to understand; the comprehensibility of clear expression. See Dressing the Frets on a Classical Guitar see How to Change Classical  Guitar Strings 

Classical a period in music generally understood to be between 1750 and 1820; music that is has an enduring quality

Classical Guitar A guitar, usually of six nylon strings, used to play classical style music. see Anatomy of a Classical Guitar 

Classical music a period in music generally understood to be between 1750 and 1820; music that is has an enduring quality

Clave five-note, two-bar rhythmic pattern which generates rhythmic measurement and is the foundation and backbone of salsa

Clef symbol placed on the left of the stave which establishes the relationship between notes and their position on the staff lines and spaces See clef in Elements of a Musical Score  See clef in Staff, Barline, & Clef see Elements of Standard Notation for Classical Guitar

Clef de fa (French) clef sign that shows the position of F on the staff, for example, the bass clef See clef in Staff, Barline, & Clef

Clef de sol clef sign that shows the position of G on the staff, for example, the treble clef See clef in Staff, Barline, & Clef

Click track technique for reinforcing the live sound of a musical or band with recorded sound from one track of a tape. The other track of the tape consists of a click used by the musical director to keep the live band and cast synchronized with the recorded band or cast

Clos a cadence in which the last note sounds conclusive; that note, termed the ‘final’, which is the central note of the melody; the second ending of a repeated section

Close cadence

Closed ending second of two endings in a secular medieval work, usually cadencing on the final

Close harmony a form of harmony where the harmonizing notes lie close to the melody

Co…

Cocobolo Cocobolo is a Rosewood that grows in southern Mexico and Central America. Freshly cut, it is a bright yellow and orange-red but over time it oxidizes to a rich brown-red color with black streaks. It is probably as close to Brazilian Rosewood in beauty and tonal qualities as any wood. Cocobolo is heavier than most Rosewoods, not as stable, and occasionally more brittle. see Wood Choices for Back & Sides see Alternative Wood Choices for Back & Sides see Anatomy of a Classical Guitar

Coda (Italian) passage ended onto the end of a composition see in Repeats, D.S.,D.C….

Coda Sign see in Repeats, D.S.,D.C….

Coda uncinata (Italian) the flag attached to the tail of a note to show its length

Code uncinate (Italian) the flags attached to the tail of a note to show their length

Codetta (Italian) a passage within a composition in sonata form which, while resembling a coda, occurs at the end of the exposition rather than at the end of the piece

Cogli (Italian) with the

Coi (Italian) with the

Col’ (Italian) with the

Col canto (Italian) to follow the speed of the singer

Coll (Italian) with the

Colla (Italian) with the

Collage a technique where musical fragments from other compositions are overlapped within a new work

Colla parte (Italian) to follow the speed of the singer

Colla voce (Italian) to follow the speed of the singer

Colle (Italian) with the

Colombianas flamenco style influenced by South American rhythms

Combination note third note heard when two notes are played simultaneously, resultant tone

Combined French Polished Shellac & Nitrocellulose Lacquer Many guitar makers are now combining both. They are using French polish for the soundboard because of the finish’s tonal characteristics and Nitrocellulose lacquer for the rest of the guitar for its durability. see Anatomy of a Classical Guitar

Combo Small group of musicians, usually four to six

Come (Italian) as, like, as if

Comme (French) as, like, as if

Come prima (Italian) as before

Comique (French) comic

Commissioned work one for which a composer is given a contract

Common chord a chord containing a root, third, and fifth

Common meter the meter of a four-line stanza with eight, six, eight and six syllables per line

Common metre the meter of a four-line stanza with eight, six, eight and six syllables per line

Common note a note that remains the same between two different chords

Common time the time signature 4/4 See common time in Elements of a Musical Score see Time Signatures

Common tone a note that remains the same between two different chords

Comodamente (Italian) comfortably, conveniently, moderately

Comodo (Italian) at an easy pace, comfortable, moderate

comp. abbreviation of ‘composed’

Comparsa musical gathering

Compass the range of an instrument

Compiacevole (Italian) pleasing

Compiacevolmente (Italian) pleasingly

Compiacimento (Italian) pleasure

Comping the practice of supplying background music comprised of chords while a soloist is improvising

Complete cadence Plagal Cadence. A chord progression where the subdominant chord is followed by the tonic chord- In the tonality of C major, an plagal cadence would be the subdominant f major chord (F A C) moving to the tonic C major chord (C E G). see Musical Cadences

Complex meter a time signature such as 4+2+3 / 8

Complex time signature a time signature such as 4+2+3 / 8

Componiert (German) composed

Composé (French) composed

Composer a person who writes music

Composition the music that a composer writes

Compound harmony standard chord with an added octave in the bass

Compound interval an interval greater than an octave, for example, a ninth, an eleventh, a thirteenth

Compter (French) to count

Con (Italian) with

Con amore (Italian) with love, lovingly

Con brio (Italian) with spirit

Concert (Italian) musical performance in front of an audience

Concertant (French) in the form of a concerto, where there is interplay between the performers

Concertante (Italian) in the form of a concerto, where there is interplay between the performers

Concertino (Italian) a shorter work

Concert master (German) the first violinist or leader of an orchestra

Concert-meister (German) the first violinist or leader of an orchestra

Concerto ensemble music for voice(s) and instrument(s) (seventeenth-century

Concert overture single-movement concert piece for orchestra

Concert pitch the pitch to which an ensemble tunes, typically a’= 440Hz

Concitato (Italian) agitated, roused, stirred

Concitamento (Italian) agitation

Concitazione (Italian) agitation

Concord a chord, or group of notes complete and in total harmony with each other

Concordant a chord, or group of notes complete and in total harmony with each other

Conduct to direct a performance by an ensemble

Conductor a person who conducts

Con forza (Italian) forcefully, vigorously

Con fuoco (Italian) with fire

Con grandezza (Italian) with grandeur

Conjunct in which a theme moves by no more than a tone or semitone from one note to the next

Connecting note a note that is held between adjacent chords

Con passione (Italian) play with emotion

Consecutive interval a progression where the harmonic interval between the parts remains fixed -in octaves, in thirds, in fourths……..

Conservatoire (French) where musicians study

Conservatorium (German) where musicians study

Conservatory where musicians study

Conserver (French) to preserve, to retain

Con sordino (Italian) with mute

con sordini (Italian) with mutes

Conte (French) tale

Contemporary music a term applied  to any music written within the last forty or fifty years

Continuous imitation Renaissance polyphonic style where subjects move between the lines or voices, often overlapping one another

Contra a prefix indicating that the pitch of an instrument is usually one octave lower

Contrabass double-bass

Contrebasse (French) double-bass

Contrabasso (Italian) double-bass

Contradanza (Italian) popular eighteenth-century French dance form

Contredanse (French) popular eighteenth-century French dance form

Contrary motion two voices moving in opposite directions

Contrast the use of differentiated tempi, timbres, dynamics or time signatures

Cool jazz restrained, unemotional performance with lush harmonies, moderate volume levels and tempos

Copla Spanish songs set to popular poems

Coplas (Spanish) stanzas

Coprifoco (Italian) piece with bell-like effects

Coprifuoco (Italian) piece with bell-like effects

Corda (Italian) string

Corde (Italian) strings

Corde (French) string

Cordas (Portuguese) strings

Corde à jour (French) open string

corde à vide (French) open string

Corea (Spanish) dance accompanied by song

Coro (Italian) choir, chorus

Corona (Italian) musical symbol placed over a note or rest to extend its normal duration

Corto (Italian) short

Corta (Italian) short

Corti (Italian) short

Corte (Italian) short

Coste, Napoléon (1806-1883) see Classical Guitarists and Composers

Countermelody a melody designed to fit against a more important line

Counterpoint the technique of setting a melody or melodies in conjunction with another

Countersubject secondary theme of a fugue

Countertheme secondary theme of a fugue

Country dance (English) popular eighteenth-century French dance form

Couplet duplet, a two-note slur, an episode in an early French rondeau

Courante Rapid French dance in triple meter time

Course pair or more of strings tuned to the same note or an octave apart

Cr…

Crab canon a piece of counterpoint in which one part is identical to another, but backwards

Credits The composer and/or arranger of a piece. see Elements of Standard Notation for Classical Guitar  see Elements of Tablature for Classical Guitar

Crescendo increasingly loud. see crescendo in Phrasing Symbols see dynamic symbols in Phrasing Symbols

Crescendo e accelerando increasingly loud and getting steadily faster

Croche (French) eighth note see Note Values

Crochet (French) flag attached to the tail of a note to show its length

Crochets (French) flags attached to the tail of a note to show its length

Croma (Italian) eighth note see Note Values

Cromatico (Italian) chromatic

Cromatica (Italian) chromatic

Cromatici (Italian) chromatic

Cromatice (Italian) chromatic

Crossover merging of styles

Crotchet quarter note see Note Values

Crotchet rest quarter rest

Crowning Frets A procedure of reshaping the frets on a guitar to improve balance, tone, clarity, & sustain. See Dressing the Frets on a Classical Guitar 

Crustic a phrase that begins on the downbeat of a bar and ends at the end of a bar

Cu…

Cuivré (French) brassy

Cupo (Italian) dark, somber

Curly Lagerstroemia An alternative wood for the back and sides of a classical guitar. see Wood Choices for Back & Sides see Alternative Wood Choices for Back & Sides see Anatomy of a Classical Guitar

Cut-a-Way A Cut out of a guitar body that allows for easier access to the upper areas of the fingerboard. see Anatomy of a Classical Guitar

Cut time quick duple time in which the half note is given one beat instead of two See cut time in Elements of a Musical Score see Time Signatures

Cy…

Cycle several movements or pieces designed to be played in succession

Cyclic form work in which some or all of the movements share related material

Cyklus (German) cycle

 

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