F – Dictionary

F…

f forte, loud

F clef a clef sign that shows the position of F on the staff See clef in Staff, Barline, & Clef

Fa…

Faburden (English) a part added to a melody that move at the same rate, a drone bass

Fach (German) fold

Facile (French) easy

Facilement (French) easily

Facilmente (Italian) easily

Facilità (Italian) ease, simplification

Fackeltanz (German) a torch dance

Fadding an Irish dance of the sixteenth- and seventeenth-century

Fading an Irish dance of the sixteenth- and seventeenth-century

Fadinho a type of Portuguese song and dance to guitar accompaniment

Fado a type of Portuguese song and dance to guitar accompaniment

Fähnchen (German) the flag attached to the tail of a note to show its length

Fahren (German) to go

Faible (French) feeble, weak in tone

Faire (French) to do, to make

Faites (French) do, make

Fall (Old English) cadence

Fall (German) case

Fall off a descending glissando that falls from the end of a note

Falle (German) case

False cadence deceptive cadence

False fingering different combinations of fingering that produce the same pitch, used to make tonal contrast, or  make the playing of passage work easier

Falsetas the melody played on a flamenco guitar

Falsobordone (Italian) a part added to a melody that move at the same rate, a drone bass

Family instruments with a common characteristic

Fan Bracing Generally made of spruce, braces add stiffness to the top of a classical guitar. The wood chosen is very straight grained running the length of the brace. The fan describes the pattern in which the braces lay.

Fantasia (Italian) a piece with an improvisatory feel to it

Fantasie (Italian) a piece with an improvisatory feel to it

Fantasiestück (German) a short piece not unlike a capriccio or intermezzo

Fantastico (Italian) capricious, fantastic, whimsical

Fantasque (French) capricious, fantastic, whimsical

Fantastisch (German) capricious, fantastic, whimsical

Fantasy a piece with an improvisatory feel to it

Farandole a lively dance in compound duple time

Farruca a Spanish gypsy dance for men, in 2/4 time

Farsa (Italian) farce

Fassung (German) version

Fast (German) almost

Fastoso (Italian) pompous

Fastosamente (Italian) pompously

Fausset (French) falsetto

Fauxbourdon (French) a part added to a melody that move at the same rate, a drone bass

Fc…

F clef a clef sign that shows the position of F on the staff See clef in Staff, Barline, & Clef

Fe…

Feierlich (German) solemn, rejoicing

Feis (Gaelic) festival

Felice (Italian) happy

Fermamente (Italian) firmly

Fermata (Italian) musical symbol placed over a note or rest to be extended beyond its normal duration. see fermata in Note Symbols see fermata in Phrasing Symbols

Fermate (German) musical symbol placed over a note or rest to be extended beyond its normal duration. see fermata in Note Symbols

Fermato (Italian) perform a certain passage firmly, steadily, or resolutely

Fermer (French) to close, to close off

Fernando Carulli (1770-1841) see Classical Guitarists and Composers

Fernando Sor (1778-1839) see Classical Guitarists and Composers

Ferne (German) distance

Feroce (Italian) ferocious

Ferocità (Italian) ferocity

Fertig (German) dexterous, fluent, ready

Fest (German) festival

Festa (Italian) festive

Festival a series of concerts at a single venue

Festivamente (Italian) festively

Festivo (Italian) festive

Festevole (Italian) merry

Festevolmente (Italian) merrily

Festlich (German) festive

Festoso (Italian) festive

Feuer (German) fire

Feurig (German) fiery

Ff…

ff (Italian) abbreviation for fortissimo

fff (Italian) abbreviation for fortississimo

ffff (Italian) abbreviation for fortissississimo

fffff  (Italian) abbreviation for fortississississimo

Fi…

Fiacco (Italian) tired out, weak

Fiata (Italian) time

Fiate (Italian) times

Fiato (Italian) breath

Fier (French) proud

Fière (French) proud

Fierté (French) boldness of touch, pride

Fierezza (Italian) boldness of touch

Fiero (Italian) fierce,  haughty

Fifth an interval of five diatonic degrees

Figure musical phrase that repeats in a musical composition

Figured A distinctive wood grain pattern. see Wood Choices for Back & Sides see Alternative Wood Choices for Back & Sides

Figured Afzelia An alternative wood for the back and sides of a classical guitar. see Wood Choices for Back & Sides see Alternative Wood Choices for Back & Sides see Anatomy of a Classical Guitar

Figured Bubinga Also known as African Rosewood, is harder and heavier than either Brazilian or Indian Rosewood, It has a medium texture with interlocking grain. It’s pinkish-mauve cast oxidizes to a nice brownish-red over time. Figured is a distinctive wood grain pattern. see Wood Choices for Back & Sides see Alternative Wood Choices for Back & Sides see Anatomy of a Classical Guitar

Figured Katalox An alternative wood for the back and sides of a classical guitar. see Wood Choices for Back & Sides see Alternative Wood Choices for Back & Sides see Anatomy of a Classical Guitar

Figured Long Leaf Pine An alternative wood for the back and sides of a classical guitar. see Wood Choices for Back & Sides see Alternative Wood Choices for Back & Sides see Anatomy of a Classical Guitar

Figured melody melody that is highly ornamented

Figured Narra An alternative wood for the back and sides of a classical guitar. see Wood Choices for Back & Sides see Alternative Wood Choices for Back & Sides see Anatomy of a Classical Guitar

Figured Olivewood An alternative wood for the back and sides of a classical guitar. see Wood Choices for Back & Sides see Alternative Wood Choices for Back & Sides see Anatomy of a Classical Guitar

Figured Ribbon Redwood An alternative wood for the back and sides of a classical guitar. see Wood Choices for Back & Sides see Alternative Wood Choices for Back & Sides see Anatomy of a Classical Guitar

Fill cover bare beats during solo portions in the music; fillers

Fin (French) end

Fin (Italian) as far as

Final central pitch of a piece of music, often the note on which a musical work ends

Final Cadence A chord progression where the dominant chord is followed by the tonic chord- In the tonality of C major, an authentic cadence would be the dominant G major chord (G B D) moving to the tonic C major chord (C E G). In a perfect authentic cadence, the dominant chord in root position is followed by the tonic in root position, and according to some, the cadence is not perfect unless the uppermost voice is the tonic in the final chord. see Musical Cadences

Finale (Italian) the final section of an extended work with several movements or sections

Fine (Italian) end. see in Repeats, D.S.,D.C….

Fingerboard A strip of wood holding frets on the neck of a guitar against which the strings are pressed in playing. See Dressing the Frets on a Classical Guitar see Anatomy of a Classical Guitar

Fingerboard Nut A grooved strip of bone, ivory or plastic that lifts the strings from the guitar’s neck. See The  Classical  Guitar Fingerboard Nut see Anatomy of a Classical Guitar

Fingerboard Nut Height The height of the string at the first fret measured from the top of the fret to the bottom of the string. See The  Classical  Guitar Fingerboard Nut see Anatomy of a Classical Guitar

Fingering the arrangement of fingers required to play a particular note or sequences of notes on a musical instrument. see fingerings in Left & Right Hand Fingerings

Fingersatz (German) fingering

Fino (Italian) as far as 

Fino al segno (Italian) as far as the sign

Firmo (Italian) firm

First ending where a section is repeated, the composer may wish to vary the sectional ending, whether first ending or second ending, as a way of creating symmetry between antecedent and consequent phrases or simply in order to extend the composition. see in Repeats, D.S.,D.C….

Fl…

Flag line(s) extending from the right side of a stem of a note. Indicating an eighth note or smaller See Flag in Elements of a Musical Score see Elements of Standard Notation for Classical Guitar  see Elements of Tablature for Classical Guitar

Flamed A distinctive wood grain pattern. see Wood Choices for Back & Sides see Alternative Wood Choices for Back & Sides 

Flamed Mahogany A wood that used to be exported mainly from Honduras, but now comes more often from Brazil. African Mahogany a little heavier and finer textured than Honduran Mahogany. Mahogany is fine for guitars due to its relative low cost, ease of working, and stability. Colors range from light pink to medium brown to reddish brown. Flamed A distinctive wood grain pattern. see Wood Choices for Back & Sides see Alternative Wood Choices for Back & Sides see Anatomy of a Classical Guitar

Flamed Maple Flamed A distinctive wood grain pattern. Maple is known for its figured grain, particularly “curly” or “flamed” wood exhibiting the tight even curls of “fiddleback” figure, as well as “birds-eye” and “quilted” or “blister” figure. European Maple is between Rock Maple and Bigleaf in hardness, and is fine and even-textured. Bigleaf Maple is a bit coarser and harder to work. It can range in color from ivory, to pink, to tan. Quilted Maple is the hardest to obtain. see Wood Choices for Back & Sides see Alternative Wood Choices for Back & Sides see Anatomy of a Classical Guitar

Flamenco A style evolved over centuries, carried across Asia, the Middle East, Africa and the European continent by nomad gypsies. At its purest it is a form of song accompanied with one or two guitars and rhythmic clapping.

Flat a sign which lowers the pitch of a note by one semitone. see flat sign in Note Symbols

Flat to play under the general pitch. see Note Symbols

Flat Key Signatures see Table of Key Signatures

Flat Sign See flat sign in Note Symbols

Flatter (French) to caress

Flautando (Italian) to produce harmonics, on a stringed instrument

Flautato (Italian) to produce harmonics, on a stringed instrument

Fleadh (Gaelic) Celtic music festival

Flebile (Italian) mournful

Flebilmente (Italian) mournfully

Flehend (German) entreating

Flessibile (Italian) flexible

Flessibilità (Italian) flexibility

Fling a vigorous Scottish dance

Florid decorated or embellished with ornamentation

Flüchtig (German) agile, fleet

Fluidezza (Italian) fluidity

Fluidità (Italian) fluidity

Fluido (Italian) fluid

Fo…

Focoso (Italian) fiery

Fois (French) time

Folge (German) continuation, series, succession,

Folgen (German) to follow

Folgt (German) follows

Folia a folk-song associated with the Canary Islands, slow and lyrical in character and usually accompanied by a guitar or the timple

Folk elements introduction of folk melodies, rhythms or characteristic harmonic progressions into orchestral or chamber music

Folk music songs and dances transmitted orally through several generations before being recorded or notated

Fonn mall (Gaelic) a slow air

Forefall an ascending appoggiatura

Forlana (Italian) old Italian dance in compound duple time

Forlane (French) old Italian dance in compound duple time

Forlano old Italian dance in compound duple time

Form the structure a pieces of music may have, for example, sonata form, rondo, …….

Formalism the tendency in music to elevate form above expression

Formant a resonant peak in a frequency spectrum

Format de poche (French) pocket-sized

Fort (German) continually, away

Forte (Italian) loud, abbreviated ‘f’,  powerful, strong. see dynamic symbols in Phrasing Symbols

Fortemente (Italian) strongly powerfully,

Fortepiano (Italian) early name for the pianoforte. see dynamic symbols in Phrasing Symbols

Fortissimo (Italian) louder than forte. see dynamic symbols in Phrasing Symbols

Fortississimo (Italian) louder than Fortissimo. see dynamic symbols in Phrasing Symbols

Fortissississimo (Italian) louder than Fortississimo. see dynamic symbols in Phrasing Symbols

Forza (Italian) force

Forgueuse (French) impetuous

Fougueux (French) impetuous

Four-beat in jazz, to play all beats of a four-beat bass rhythm with equal emphasis

Fours when jazz ensemble players exchange leads every four bars

Fourth interval of four diatonic scale notes, counting the first and last note, for example, the interval from ‘C’ to ‘F’

Forzando (Italian) forcing

Forzato (Italian) forced

Fp…

fp Fortepiano; loud, then immediately soft

Fr…

Fracta modi ornamental notes that break into the steady pattern of rhythmic modes

Fractional time signature a meter time signature in which the top number includes or is a fraction

Fragmentation breaking up a subject into small segments, any one of which may form the basis for further development

Frais (French) fresh

Fraîche (French) fresh

Fraîcheur (French) freshness

Franc (French) frank, open-hearted

Français (French) French

Française (French) French

Française a round dance in compound duple or triple time

Franche (French) frank, open-hearted

Franchezza (Italian) boldness, freedom of spirit

Franchise (French) boldness, freedom of spirit

Franciso Tárrega (1852-1909) see Classical Guitarists and Composers

Frapper (French) to strike

Frappant (French) striking

Frappé (French) struck

Freddamente (Italian) coldly

Freddezza (Italian) coolness or indifference

Freddo (Italian) cold

Free rhythm a fluid line of music with an adjustable rhythm shaped by text

Frei (German) free

Freie (German) free

French Clef See clef in Staff, Barline, & Clef

French Polished Shellac French polishing is a method of applying finish to a guitar by hand with a cotton pad. Most of the fine classical guitars being hand made today are French Polished. It is a most highly-prized and desired finish for both its visual and tone enhancing characteristics.  The texture, luster and color of the wood are enhanced with a French polish finish. It is thin, flexible and produces the clearest and most natural sound. Multiple polishing sessions are required over many weeks to achieve the best results.  The finish dries to the touch almost immediately but can takes months to fully cure.  Even though it is thin and flexible it is not very protective against even minor physical abuse. see Anatomy of a Classical Guitar

French sixth chord an augmented sixth chord, which contains a second from the tonic

Frenetica (Italian) frenzied

Frenetico (Italian) frenzied

Frequency the number of vibrations per second of a musical pitch, usually measured in Hertz (Hz)

Frescamente (Italian) coolly or freshly

Fresco (Italian) fresh or cool

Fret Dressing File A file used for dressing frets to improve balance, tone, clarity, & sustain. See Dressing the Frets on a Classical Guitar

Fret Ends The sides of the frets that reach the sides of the fingerboard. see Anatomy of a Classical Guitar

Fret File A file used for dressing frets to improve balance, tone, clarity, & sustain. See Dressing the Frets on a Classical Guitar

Frets Horizontal strips fixed in or tied around the fingerboard of some stringed instruments to act as guides to where the fingers should be placed to stop for different notes. Strips of metal on the neck of a guitar against which the strings are pressed in playing. See Dressing the Frets on a Classical Guitar see Anatomy of a Classical Guitar

Fretta (Italian) haste

Frettolosamente (Italian) hurried

Freude (German) joy

Freudig (German) joyful

Frisch (German) brisk, lively

Fröhlich (German) happy

Froid (German) cold

Froidement (French) coldly

Früher (German) earlier, previously

Fs…

F-Schlussel (German) F or bass clef

Fu…

Fuga (Latin)

Fugato a passage in a fugal style

Fugue (Italian) a fifteenth- or sixteenth-century canon

Fuge (German) fugue

Fughetta a short fugue

Fuging tune a tune upon which a fugue is built

Fugue form in which a subject theme is introduced and then extended and developed through some number of successive imitations

Fulía a call and response music style from eastern Venezuela with Spanish musical roots

Full Cadence A chord progression where the dominant chord is followed by the tonic chord- In the tonality of C major, an authentic cadence would be the dominant G major chord (G B D) moving to the tonic C major chord (C E G). In a perfect authentic cadence, the dominant chord in root position is followed by the tonic in root position, and according to some, the cadence is not perfect unless the uppermost voice is the tonic in the final chord. see Musical Cadences

Full Close perfect cadence

Full Close Cadence A chord progression where the dominant chord is followed by the tonic chord- In the tonality of C major, an authentic cadence would be the dominant G major chord (G B D) moving to the tonic C major chord (C E G). In a perfect authentic cadence, the dominant chord in root position is followed by the tonic in root position, and according to some, the cadence is not perfect unless the uppermost voice is the tonic in the final chord. see Musical Cadences

Full Orchestra an orchestra with all of its four sections; brass, percussion strings, and woodwind

Führend (German) leading

Füllstimme (German) a middle voice in a polyphonic composition generally of little musical importance

Function the way in which chords, and individual tones within the chord, tend to imply movement toward another chord

Fundamental the lowest note in the harmonic series

Funebre (Italian) funeral

Fünf (German) five

Fünfstimmig (German) in five parts

Fuoco (Italian) force and speed

Für  (German) for

Furia (Italian) fury

Furibondo (Italian) furious

Furiosamente (Italian) furiously

Furioso (Italian) furious

Furiant a rapid, polyrhythmic dance type in triple time from Bohemia

Furieux (French) furious

Furieusement (French) furiously

Furore (Italian) enthusiasm, fury

Fusa (Latin) eighth note

Fuyant (French) fleeing

Fz…

fz (Italian)  forzando or forzato; forcing

 

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