R – Dictionary

R…

R & B abbreviation for rhythm and blues

Ra…

Rabab ancient instrument found in Afghanistan and India. a hollowed-out body of wood with a membrane stretched over the opening. Combinations of gut and metal strings pass over a bridge which rests on a taught membrane

Rababa  Afghan lute with 13 sympathetic strings. The three main gut strings are stretched across a goat skin

Rabbia (Italian) anger, rage, Fury

Raddolcendo (Italian) becoming gentler, calming down

Raddolcente (Italian) becoming gentler, calming down

Raddoppiare (Italian) to double

Raddoppiamento (Italian) doubling

Raffrenando (Italian) checking the speed, slowing

Rageur (French) ill-tempered

Ragtime a musical syle of 1890s America, a forerunner of jazz

Rajão a mid-size Portuguese guitar from the island of Madeira

Raking performing broken chords on the lute

Raks sharki belly dance or Oriental dance

Ralentir (French) to slow down

Rall. abbreviation of rallentando

Rallentamento (Italian) slow

Rallentando  (Italian) slowing

Rallentato (Italian) slowed

Rallentare (Italian) to slow

Rammentatore (Italian) prompter

Rancheras (Spanish) Mexican cowboy music usually accompanied by a mariachi band

Range from the lowest note to the highest note whether in a piece of music, or an instrument

Rant old English dance of the seventeenth century in duple meter and binary form

Rap rhythmic chanting consisting of improvised rhymes performed to rhythmic accompaniment

Rapidamente (Italian) rapidly

Rapidità (Italian) rapidity

Rapido (Italian) rapid

Rapproacher (French) bring closer together

Rapso music style from Trinidad and Tobago

Rapsodia (Italian) rhapsody

Rasch (German) quick

Rascher (German) quicker

Rasgueado (Spanish) a style of guitar playing in which the strings are strummed

Rasguedo (Spanish) a style of guitar playing in which the strings are strummed

Raspa, La Mexican dance from Veracruz

Rattenendo (Italian) holding back

Rattenere (Italian) to hold back

Rattenuto (Italian) held back

Rauh (German) coarse, rough

Rauschend (German) murmuring, rustling

Ravvivando  (Italian) quickening

Ravvivato (Italian) quickened

Re…

Recapitulation the return of the opening thematic material

Recessional composition to be performed at the end of a church service as the clergy leaves the church

Recht (German) right

Rechte (German) right

Recital a musical performance usually involving a small number of performers

Recoupe a dance of the French Renaissance

Recueilli (French) meditative

Red Palm An alternative wood for the back and sides of a classical guitar. see Wood Choices for Back & Sides see Alternative Wood Choices for Back & Sides see Anatomy of a Classical Guitar

Redend (German) speaking

Redoublement (French) doubling

Redoubler (French) doubling

Redowa a fast, triple-time dance from Bohemia

Reduction simplified arrangement of a composition

Reduire (French) to arrange

Reduzieren (German) to arrange

Redundant entry an extra voice in the initial entries or the exposition in a fugue

Redwood Lace Burl An alternative wood for the back and sides of a classical guitar. see Wood Choices for Back & Sides see Alternative Wood Choices for Back & Sides see Anatomy of a Classical Guitar

Reel lively Scottish, Irish or Scandinavian dance in 4/4

Refin. A non original finish on a guitar. see Anatomy of a Classical Guitar

Refrain a chorus or a part of a song that recurs often at the end of each of a number of verses

Refrapper (German) to strike again

Reggae a slow tempo rhythmic style that originated in Jamaica

Regie (German) production

Register range of an instrument with a characteristic sound

Registrieren (German) to register

Registrierung (German) registration

Registro (Italian) register

Rein (German) pure

Réjouissance (French) a spirited movement found in suites of the baroque period

Relâché (French) loosened

Related keys musical keys that because of their similarity are easy to move between

Relative keys keys that share a common key signature, for example, C major and A minor

Relative pitch an ability to identify one pitch with reference to another given pitch

Religieuse (French) religious

Religieux (French) religious

Religiosamente (Italian) with a devotional feeling

Religioso (Italian) religious

Remettre (French) to put back

Remote keys the relationship between keys that have relatively few notes in common, for example, the key of C and the key of F sharp

Renaissance (Italian) an era of music between the fifteenth- and sixteenth-centuries

Rendition a performance

Renforcer (French) increase

Renforcez (French) increase

Rentrée (French) re-entry

Renvoi (French) the repeat sign

Repeat a sign indicating that a section of a piece of music is to be played a second time.  see Repeats, D.S.,D.C….

Repeat sign a sign indicating that a section of a piece of music is to be played a second time. see Repeats, D.S.,D.C….

Repeated notes reiteration of a tone at the same pitch level

Repeated notes see Repeated Notes, Sequences, & Passages

Repeated passage see Repeated Notes, Sequences, & Passages

Repeated Sequence of Two Notes see Repeated Notes, Sequences, & Passages

Repercussion the frequent repetition of the same sound

Répertoire compositions prepared for performance

Repeticiôn (Spanish) repeat

Répétition (French) rehearsal

Repetizione (Italian) rehearsal

Replica (English) musical instrument that is a reproduction

Replica (Italian) repeat

Replicato (Italian) doubled

Replicazione (Italian) repetition

Repos (French) repose

Reprendre (French) to take up again

Reprenez (French) take up again

Reprise (French) repeat, recapitulation, revival; a shortened version of a major composition in a stage production used to reward the audience with a repeat of a popular melody, often used as a finale to a scene or an act

Requiem musical composition honoring the dead

Requinto small guitar used in Spain, Colombia, Ecuador and Mexico

Requinto jarocho small 4-string Mexican guitar from the Jarocho region

Résolument (French) resolutely

Resolution harmonic progression from discord to concord

Resoluto (Italian) resolute

Resoluzione (Italian) firmness, steady rhythm

Resonator those parts of instruments which resonate or vibrate, thus enhancing the sound of the instrument, particularly the body of a guitar (an example of a resonator box)

Ressortir (French) to make a melody stand out

Rest a musical symbol indicating a period of silence see rest in Note Values see Elements of Standard Notation for Classical Guitar

Restez (French) remain on a note or string

Restring Install new strings on a guitar. see How to Change Classical Guitar Strings

Retardando (Italian) to hold back, holding back, held back (gradual change of tempo)

Retardation suspension in a harmony that resolves upwards rather than downwards; a slowing down of the tempo

Retenant (French) to hold back immediately

Retenu (French) to hold back immediately

Retrograde motion a theme played backwards

Retrograde inversion motion a theme played backwards and upside down

Retrouvez (French) re-attain

Réunis (French) coupled

Reveille (French) the military signal announcing the start of the day, wake-up call

Revenir (French) to return

Reverse motion imitation in contrary motion, that is, the ascending intervals are changed to descending intervals and the descending intervals changed to ascending

Rêveur (French) dreamy

Revidiert (German) revised

Rewap  a three-string long necked lute of the Turks in China. The resonator is usually round, covered with python skin or other elements and sometimes there are elaborate wood, bone and horn inlays

Rezitativ (German) recitative

Rh…

Rhapsody similar to fantasia applied to pieces from the nineteenth-century inspired by extroverted romantic notions

Rhododendron Burl An alternative wood for the back and sides of a classical guitar. see Wood Choices for Back & Sides see Alternative Wood Choices for Back & Sides see Anatomy of a Classical Guitar

Rhythm the disposition of strong and weak beats in a piece of music

Rhythm and blues American pop music style popular between the 1940’s and 1960’s

Rhythmé (French) rhythmic

Rhythmique (French) rhythmic

Rhythmisch (German) rhythmic

Rhythm section the performers using percussion instruments; when applied to a jazz band, the rhythm section includes piano, double bass (or electric bass), guitar and drum kit

Rhythmus (German) rhythm

Ri…

Ribattuta (Italian) a trill in dotted rhythm

Ribs the sides of a stringed instrument such as a guitar, violin, …..

Ricercarta (Italian) an elaborate contrapuntal piece of music

Ricercare (Italian) an elaborate contrapuntal piece of music

Richettato (Italian) spiccato

Richtig (German) precise, right

Riddle canon a canon in which the composer has left it to the performer to choose at which point and at which pitch the following voice(s) should start

Ride out the final chorus of a piece

Ridotto (Italian) a reduction, an arrangement, an 18th century entertainment in which audience and musicians would take part

Riduzione (Italian) reduction, arrangement

Riff a short music phrase, often repeated, particularly in jazz or blues

Rigadoon (Old English) a dance in simple duple or quadruple time

Rigaudon (French) a dance in simple duple or quadruple time

Right Hand Fingerings  See Right hand fingerings in Left & Right Hand Fingerings

Rigore (Italian) strict time

Rigoroso (Italian) strict time

Rilasciando (Italian) to slow, slowing, slowed

Rilasciante (Italian) to slow, slowing, slowed

Rilassando (Italian) to slow, slowing, slowed

Rilassato (Italian) to slow, slowing, slowed

Rimettendo (Italian) returning to the original tempo

Rimettendosi (Italian) returning to the original tempo

Rin. (Italian) accenting, accented

Rinforzando (Italian) repose

Rinforzare (Italian) repose

Rinforzato (Italian) repose

Ring shout religious dance performed by African-American slaves

Rinyu-gaku (Japanese) the music of Southern Asia

Rip a loud tonal slide up to a note often ending with a sharp accent

Ripetizione (Italian) repetition

Ripieno (Italian) a term used to distinguish passages played by soloists and those played by the whole orchestra

Riposata (Italian) reposeful

Riposo (Italian) repose

Riprendere (French) resume original tempo

Ripresa (Italian) repeat

Riscaldano (Italian) livelier

Risolutamente (Italian) resolutely

Risoluto (Italian) bold, resolute

Risoluzione (Italian) resolution

Rispetto a type of Italian folk-song

Ristringendo (Italian) quickening

Risvegliato (Italian) animated

Rit. (Italian) Ritardando; to hold back, holding back, held back (gradual change of tempo)

Ritard. (Italian) Ritardando; to hold back, holding back, held back (gradual change of tempo)

Ritardando (Italian) to hold back, holding back, held back (gradual change of tempo)

Ritardare (Italian) to hold back, holding back, held back (gradual change of tempo)

Ritardato (Italian) to hold back, holding back, held back (gradual change of tempo)

Ritardo (Italian) the gradual diminishing of speed

Riten. (Italian) Ritenuto; suddenly slower

Ritenuto (Italian) suddenly slower

Ritmo (Italian) rhythm

Ritmo di tre battute music played so quickly that each measure is played as a single beat and each group of three bars is a single hypermeasure

Ritmico (Italian) rhythmic

Ritornel (English)  an instrumental piece

Ritornell (German) an instrumental piece

Ritornello (Italian) an instrumental piece

Ritorno (Italian) return

Ritournelle (French) an instrumental piece

Ritterlich (German) knightly

Ro…

Robusto (Italian) robust, strongly voiced

Rock a popular music style developed in the United States and Great Britain in the late 1960s

Rock music a popular music style developed in the United States and Great Britain in the late 1960s

Rock and Roll American popular music of the 1950’s

Roco (Italian) raucous

Rococo (French) a florid musical style generally applied to the music of the sons of Bach, early Haydn and Mozart

Roh (German) coarse, rough

Rollers The part of a guitar tuner that attaches the string. see How to Change Classical Guitar Strings see Anatomy of a Classical Guitar

Romance a short instrumental piece with the lyrical character of a vocal romance

Romancero (Spanish) a collection of romantic songs

Romance sans paroles (French) song without words

Romantic era an era of music following the Classical era and ending around 1900

Romantic music nineteenth-century music that is lyrical, harmonically chromatic, emotionally charged and nationalistic

Romanza (Italian) romance

Rombando (Italian) humming

Ronde (French) a whole note see Note Values

Rondeña a flamenco fandango from Ronda

Rondo an instrumental form in which the first or main section is repeated between subsidiary sections and to conclude the piece; usually in lively tempo

Root the fundamental note in a chord

Ronroco an Andean string, has five double-strings

Rose the ornamental rosette set into a hole cut into the soundboard, as in the lute

Rosette The rosette serves several purposes. It acts a a reinforcement to prevent cracking at the end grains of the sound hole area of the top of a guiter. It also acts as a visual focal point to the beauty of the guitar and, by design, is personal to its maker. see Anatomy of a Classical Guitar

Rote a method of teaching by imitation

Rotondo (Italian) a full tone

Roulant (French) rolling

Roulante (French) rolling

Round a short perpetual vocal canon in which all the voices sing at the same pitch or at an octave to it

Rounded binary compositional form with two sections, in which the second ends with a return to material from the first, each section is usually repeated

Rovescio, Al a passage that can be performed in a reverse order; a sequence of notes starting high and falling

Ru…

Ruan mellow sounding Chinese instrument played with a plectrum and similar to the mandolin

Rubab Afghan plucked lute. has a short neck with double chambers and three main playing strings made of animal gut or string. also has several drone and sympathetic metal strings

Rubato (Italian) a limited freedom of rhythm and tempo when performing a piece of music; the time extension applied to one note is taken from an adjoining note or notes

Rücksicht (German) consideration

Rudement (French) roughly

Rudl Swedish and Norwegian country dance

Rueda a Spanish round dance in quintuple time

Ruhe (German) peace

Ruhepunkt (German) the fermata sign

Ruhezeichen (German) the fermata sign

Ruhig (German) peaceful

Rull Swedish and Norwegian country dance

Rumba Cuban rhythms played at informal celebrations

Rumba columbia a style of Cuban rumba differing from other rumbas by having a 6/8 beat

Rumba flamenca a rumba style from southern Spain

Run rapid ascending or descending of notes

Runddans Swedish round dance

Russa (Italian) Russian

Russo (Italian) Russian

Rustico (Italian) in a rustic manner

Ry…

Rythme  (French) rhythm

Rythmique (French) rhythmic

 

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