S – Dictionary

Sa…

Saccadé (French) sharply accented

Sacred music music designed to be played in church inspired by or as part of services including religious texts

Saddle Typically made of bone ivory or plastic, the saddle transfers the vibrating energy of the string to the top of the guitar. The bridge saddle is not glued to the bridge, but rather held in place by the tension of the strings. The height of the saddle is determined by the guitar’s angle of the neck, therefore it is not measured upon itself but rather measured for an optimal string height at the twelfth fret. Traditionally the bass strings are higher than the trebles, but crossover players are setting their heights more equal. see Anatomy of a Classical Guitar

Saddle Height The height of the string at the twelfth fret measured from the top of the fret to the bottom of the string as adjusted at the bridge saddle. see Anatomy of a Classical Guitar

Saeta an unaccompanied Spanish folk song

Saite (German) the string of a musical instrument

Saltando (Italian) spiccato

Saltato (Italian) spiccato

Samba a dance and type of music from Brazil of African slave origin. in double time and highly syncopated

Samisen a Japanese 3-stringed instrument played with a plectrum

Sammlung (German) collection

Sampler a device used in electronic music enables the production of sounds digitally

Sampling technique of recording using a sampler for subsequent processing, editing and playback

Sämtlich (German) complete, collected

Sanduri (Greek) zither

Sanft (German) soft, gentle

Sanftmütig (German) gently

Sans (French) without

Santoor a hammered dulcimer struck with light wooden mallets, indigenous to Kashmir, but nowadays played throughout Northern India. The number of strings may vary between 24 and more than a 100, although typical instrument have about 80

Sanxian Chinese long-necked lute with 3 strings and a small snake-covered head

Sape a traditional lute of of Central Borneo. with a body carved from a single bole of wood originally strung with two strings and fitted with three frets

Sapeh a traditional lute of of Central Borneo. with a body carved from a single bole of wood originally strung with two strings and fitted with three frets

Saraband a dignified, steady dance usually in triple time

Sarabande a dignified, steady dance usually in triple time

Satinwood Ceylon An alternative wood for the back and sides of a classical guitar. see Wood Choices for Back & Sides see Alternative Wood Choices for Back & Sides see Anatomy of a Classical Guitar

Sattar a long-necked bowed instrument, with one metal playing string and 10 sympathetic strings from Western China

Satz (German) movement, theme or subject, phrase, composition or piece, texture, style

Saudades (Portuguese) sadness associated with a longing for times past

Sautillé (French) spiccato

Saz family of long thin-necked metallic-sounding fretted lutes played throughout Turkey

Sb…

Sbaltzato (Italian) play with a sense of impetuosity

Sbalzo (Italian) play with a sense of impetuosity

Sc…

Scales see Table of Major & Melodic minor Scales see Musical Scales

Scampanata (Italian) unsophisticated music

Scat song nonsense words generally used only in the improvised chorus as part of a song that otherwise has ordinary words

Scemando (Italian) diminishing the volume of tone

Scenario the outline of a work often prepared before either music and libretto has been written

Schalkhaft (German) roguish

Scharf (German) emphatically, definitely, precisely, sharply

Schärfe (German) sharpness, definiteness, precision

Schaurig (German) ghastly, gruesome

Schauerlich (German) ghastly, gruesome

Schelmisch (German) roguish

Scherz (German) fun, joke

Scherzando (Italian) jokingly, playfully

Scherzante (Italian) jokingly, playfully

Scherzare (Italian) to joke

Scherzetto (Italian) a little scherzo

Scherzevole (Italian) jokingly, playfully

Scherzevolmente (Italian) jokingly, playfully

Scherzino (Italian) a little scherzo

Scherzo (Italian)

Scherzo and trio a replacement for the ‘minuet and trio’ in the sonata cycle

Scherzosamente Italian) playfully

Scherzoso (Italian) playful

Schietto (Italian) sincere, plain

Schlacht (German) battle

Schlag (German) stroke, blow

Schlagen (German) to strike

Schlangenrohr  (German) serpent

Schleifer an ornament used to fill in the interval between two notes

Schleppen (German) drag

Schleppend (German) dragging

Schlummerlied (German) slumber song

Schluss (German) end, conclusion

Schlussel (German) clef

Schmachtend (German) languishing

Schmeichelnd (German) coaxingly

Schmelzend (German) dying away

Schmerz (German) pain, sorrow

Schmerzhaft (German) painful, sorrowful

Schmerzlich (German) painful, sorrowful

Schmerzvoll (German) painful, sorrowful

Schneidend (German) defining

Schnell (German) quick

Schneller (German) quicker

Schnelligkeit (German) speed

Schottisch (German) Scottish

Schottische (German) Scottish

Schrittmässig (German) andante

Schrittweise (German) andante

Schüchtern (German) shy

Schütteln (German) to shake

Schwach (German) weak or soft

Schwächen (German) to weaken or to soften

Schwächer weaken or soften

Schwankend (German) swaying

Schwebung (German) the beating between two notes slightly out of tune with one another, difference tone

Schweigen (German) silence, rest

Schweigezeichen (German) silence, rest

Schweigt (German) silence, rest

Schwellen (German) crescendo

Schwer (German) heavy, difficult

Schwermütig (German) heavy-hearted

Schwermutsvoll (German) heavy-hearted

Schwinden (German) diminuendo

Schwung (German) swing

Schwungvoll (German) full of vigour

Scintillante (Italian) sparkling

Scioltamente (Italian) freely, loosely

Sciolto (Italian) freely, loosely

Scivolando (Italian) glissando

Scoop to slide up to pitch from slightly below it

Scordato (Italian) to tune a stringed instrument in a non-standard manner

Scordatura (Italian) to tune a stringed instrument in a non-standard manner

Score a representation on the page of a whole musical work

Scoring orchestration

Scorrendo (Italian) glissando, in a flowing manner

Scorrevole (Italian) glissando, in a flowing manner

Scotch snap a rhythmic figure consisting of a short note on the beat followed by a long note which is then held until the next beat

Scozzese (Italian) Scottish

Scroll carving normally found on the violin and related stringed instruments, at the end of the neck just above the pegbox

Scucito (Italian) disconnected

Sd…

Sdegnante (Italian) disdaining

Sdegnosamente (Italian) disdainfully

Sdegno (Italian) disdain

Sdegnoso (Italian) disdainful

Sdrucciolando (Italian) glissando

Se…

Se (Italian) if, in case, as

Se (Chinese) a Chinese zither

Sean nos (Gaelic) unaccompanied song

Sec (French) dry, crisp; similar to staccato; to play in a plain unornamented way

Sèche (French) dry, crisp; similar to staccato; to play in a plain unornamented way

Sécheresse (French) dryness

Secco (Italian) staccato

Secco recitative accompanied by continuo instrument(s) rather than by an entire orchestra

Sechs (German) six

Sechzehntel (German) a sixteenth note see Note Values

Sechzehntelnote (German) a sixteenth note

Sechzehntelpause (German) a sixteenth rest

Second the smallest non-unison interval

Seconda  (Italian) second

Secondary dominant the dominant of the dominant

Seconda volta (Italian) second ending

Seconde (Italian) second

Secondi (Italian) second

Secondo (Italian) second

Secular music compositions that have no connection with religion

Secundal chords chords built of seconds

Seele (German) feeling

Segno (Italian) sign. see in Repeats, D.S.,D.C….

Segue (Italian) now follows, go on with what follows

Seguente (Italian) following

Seguendo (Italian) following

Seguidilla old Spanish dance in simple triple time

Sehnsucht (German) longing

Sehr (German) very, much

Sei (Italian) six

Seite (German) side

Seizième de soupir (French) a sixty-fourth rest

Selák Furiant

Semibiscroma (Italian) a sixty-fourth rest see Note Values

Semibreve a whole note see Note Values

Semibreve rest a whole rest see Note Values

Semicroma (Italian) a sixteenth note see Note Values

Semidemisemiquaver sixty-fourth note

Semifusa (Latin) sixteenth note

Semiminima (Italian) quarter note see Note Values

Semiquaver a sixteenth note see Note Values

Semiquaver rest a sixteenth rest

Semitone half the interval of a tone

Semplice (Italian) simple

Semplicità (Italian) simplicity

Semplicemente (Italian) simply

Semplicissimo (Italian) extremely simple

Sempre (Italian) always

Sensibile (Italian) sensitive

Sensibilità (Italian) sensitiveness

Sentence a complete, independent musical idea, usually consisting of two or four phrases, ending with a cadence

Sentimento (Italian) with feeling

Sentir a Moroccan three-stringed long-necked lute with a body made from a single piece of wood, and covered with camel skin

Sentito (Italian) felt

Senza (Italian) without

Senza sordina (Italian) unmated

Senza sordini (Italian) unmated

Senza sordino (Italian) unmated

Separé (French) uncoupled

Sept (French) seven

Septet (English) a group of seven instrumentalists, a work written for a group such as this to perform

Septett (German) a group of seven instrumentalists, a work written for a group such as this to perform

Septette (French) a group of seven instrumentalists, a work written for a group such as this to perform

Septetto (Italian) a group of seven instrumentalists, a work written for a group such as this to perform

Septième (French) seventh

Septulet a group of seven notes played in the time of four or in the time of six

Septuor (French) a group of seven instrumentalists, a work written for a group such as this to perform

Sequencer device or program that records and plays back user-determined sets of music performance commands, usually in the form of MIDI data

Serenade a light and/or intimate piece of no specific form to be played in an open-air evening setting, music properly played in the evening under a lady’s window

Serenata a dramatic cantata

Sereno (Italian) serene

Serenità (Italian) serenity

Seria (Italian) serious

Serialism A compositional method where various musical elements such as pitch, rhythm, dynamics and tone colour may be put in a fixed order

Serialized rhythm a musical passage or work in which the rhythmic aspects are controlled by some predetermined series of durations

Seriamente (Italian) seriously

Series a succession of musical elements to be used as fundamental material in a composition

Sérieuse (French) serious

Sérieux (French) serious

Serio (Italian) serious

Seriosa (Italian) serious

Seriosamente (Italian) seriously

Serioso (Italian) serious

Serranas a flamenco style

Serrando (Italian) getting faster

Serré (French) getting faster

Serrant (French) getting faster

Serrato (Italian) getting faster

S’escandalari a colorful peasant dance from Ibiza, Spain that celebrates planting and harvesting

Set a collection of pieces played sequentially during a performance

Sette (Italian) seven

Settimino (Italian) a group of seven instrumentalists, a work written for a group such as this to perform

Seufzend (German) sighing

Seul (French) alone

Seule (French) alone

Seules (French) alone

Seuls (French) alone

Seventh a major seventh is a semitone smaller than an octave; a minor seventh is a whole tone smaller than an octave

Seventh chord a chord consisting of a root note, the third above the root, the fifth above the root and the seventh above the root

Severita (Italian) severity, strictness

Severo (Italian) severe

Severamente (Italian) severely

Sevillanas very popular colorful and festive Spanish folk dance from Seville

Sextet (English) a group of six instrumentalists, a piece of music written for such a group to play

Sextett (German) a group of six instrumentalists, a piece of music written for such a group to play

Sextette (French)  a group of six instrumentalists, a piece of music written for such a group to play

Sestetto (Italian) a group of six instrumentalists, a piece of music written for such a group to play

Sextuor (French) a group of six instrumentalists, a piece of music written for such a group to play

Sextuple meter a compound meter with six beats to every bar

Sextuple time a compound meter with six beats to every bar

Sextuplet a group of six notes of equal value that have the equivalent time value normally of five or seven

Sf…

sf abbreviation for sforzando

Sfogato (Italian) light and easy style

Sfoggiando (Italian) flauntingly, ostentatiously

Sforzando (Italian) strongly accented

Sforzato (Italian) strongly accented

Sg…

Sgambato (Italian) in a weary style

Sh…

Shamisen a long necked Japanese 3-string fretless lute, plucked with a heavy ivory plectrum, that first became popular in the pleasure districts during the Edo Period (1600-1868) made from one of a variety of woods such as red sandalwood and the head covered with cat or dog skin. The pegs are traditionally made of ivory while the strings are of twisted silk

Shanty a sea-song which has a chorus, which is sung by all, and verses that are usually sung by only one voice

Shanz Mongolian three stringed banjo played with a plectrum

Shape the direction of a melody; the abstract quality of the motion and figure of a composition, achieved through dynamics, pitch direction and tempo

Sharp a term applied to a note slightly above its expected pitch, a sign to show that a note should be raised one semitone in pitch. see sharp sign in Note Symbols

Sharp Key Signatures see see Table of Key Signatures

Sharp Sign A sign to show that a note should be raised one semitone in pitch. see sharp sign in Note Symbols

She-Oak An alternative wood for the back and sides of a classical guitar. see Wood Choices for Back & Sides see Alternative Wood Choices for Back & Sides see Anatomy of a Classical Guitar

Shift the movement of the left hand from one position to another on the fingerboard when playing a stringed instrument

Shudraga Mongolian three stringed banjo played with a plectrum

Shuffle a slow-tempo jazz rhythm

Si…

Sich (German) oneself, himself, herself, itself, themselves

Sieben (German) seven

Sieg (German) victory

Sight reading to perform a piece of music never seen before

Signature signs placed on the clef to mark the number and position of the sharps or flats in the key in which the piece is being written, , i.e. key signature, and to indicate the number of beats in a bar, i.e. time signature

Sign see in Repeats, D.S.,D.C….

Signs symbols placed on or near a staff indicating performance specifications for pitch, dynamics, time duration, accidentals, phrasing, manner of attack, timing, tempo, repeats, fingering, ornamentation…..

Silenzio (Italian) silence

Similar motion when parts move in the same direction but not necessarily by the same interval

Simile (Italian) similar

Simili (Italian) similar

Simple interval an interval of an octave or less

Simplement (French) simply, in a simple manner

Sin’ al fine prefix to another instruction, implying that whatever is required should be carried out to the end of the work

Sinding  West African harp with five strings made out of hemp. The resonating body is a calabash stretched with goat skin. A tin rattle may be attached to the instrument. Plucking the string sets the rattle in motion, adding a percussive element to the hollow sound

Sinfonia concertante a concerto with several soloists

Sinfonica (Italian) symphonic

Sinfonico (Italian) symphonic

Sinfonietta (Italian) a small-scale symphony

Singbar (German) in a singing style

Singend (German) singing

Singhiozzando (Italian) sobbingly

Singsing pop music from the Solomon Islands

Sinistra (Italian) left hand

Sin’ (Italian) until

Sino (Italian) until

Sitar a long necked instrument with a varying number of strings), three to four playing strings, three to four drone strings, with the remainder, sympathetic strings, lying under the frets. The playing and drone strings are plucked with a wire finger plectrum. The frets are metal rods which have been bent into crescents while the main resonator is usually made of a gourd and there is sometimes an additional resonator attached to the neck

Siter a floor-standing plucked zither

Sitka Spruce Wood often used for a guitar soundboard that has a high strength-to-weight ratio. It is an ideal soundboard, especially for aggressive playing styles and/or large instrument sizes. Spruce ages well, is harder and possibly more durable than cedar, gives a crisp, more focused sound, and provides excellent treble response. Spruce tops require a longer break-in time than cedar. Light blonde in color. see Anatomy of a Classical Guitar

Six (French) six

Sixian moon-shaped Chinese mandolin with a short-necked and three or four strings

Sixième (French) sixth

Sixteenth note a note one sixteenth the time value of a whole note see Note Values

Sixteenth rest a rest one sixteenth the time value of a whole note rest

Sixth example, the interval from C to A

Sixty-fourth note a note one sixty-fourth the time value of a whole note see Note Values

Sixty-fourth rest a rest one sixty-fourth the time value of a whole note

Sk…

Skip any interval larger than a whole tone

Skizze (German) sketch

Skizzen (German) sketches

Sl…

Slancio (Italian) impetuosity

Slargando (Italian) broader

Slargandosi (Italian) broader

Slargandosi e diminuendo a poco a poco (Italian) broader and softer little by little

Slegato (Italian) non-legato

Slentando (Italian) getting slower

Slide guitar bottleneck guitar

Slur notes move smoothly one to the other with no perceptible break. see slur in Note Symbols

Sm…

Smania (Italian) craze, frenzy

Smaniato (Italian) craze, frenzy

Smear in jazz, a type of glissando or portamento in which the pitch of a note is shifted about a half step, often with a rather harsh tone

Sminuendo (Italian) diminishing

Sminuito (Italian) diminished

Smith’s patent box device fitted over the strings of an English guitar so that they are struck by hammers rather than pluck with the fingers of the hand

Smorfioso (Italian) mincing, affected

Smorz. poco a poco (Italian) little by little gradually dying away

Smorzando (Italian) gradually dying away to a whisper

Sn…

Snake Wood An alternative wood for the back and sides of a classical guitar. see Wood Choices for Back & Sides see Alternative Wood Choices for Back & Sides see Anatomy of a Classical Guitar

Snares wire-bound gut strings

Snello (Italian) nimble

Snellamente (Italian) nimbly

So…

So (German) as, so

Soave (Italian) lightly played

Soavemente (Italian) suavely

Soavità (Italian) lightly played

Sob an ornament used in lute playing, where the left hand pressure on the string follows the plucking of the string, to create a sob-like effect on the sound of the note

Sobald (German) so soon as, should

Soca a musical style from Trinidad and Tobago, The bands usually feature a drummer, bass player, guitar and horns

Sociology of music an area of study that examines the effects, now and in the past, that music has upon society and similarly the effect that society has upon music

Soeben (German) just, barely, a moment ago

Sofort (German) immediately

Soggetto (Italian) subject

Sogleich (German) immediately

Sola (Italian) solo

Soldatenzug (German) soldier’s procession

Soldatenmarsch (German) soldier’s march

Soleares a flamenco singing style in triple time

Solemnis (Latin) solemn

Solennis (Latin) solemn

Soleariya a flamenco soleá with three verses

Solenne (Italian) solemn

Solennemente (Italian) solemnly

Solennel (French) solemn

Solennelle (French) solemn

Solennellement (French) solemnly

Solennità (Italian) solemnity

Soli (Italian) alone

Solito (Italian) usual

Sollecitando (Italian) hastening forward

Sollecito (Italian) eager

Solo a part for one player with or without accompanying instruments

Soloist the player who performs the solo part

Solo part a part for one player with or without accompanying instruments

Soltanto (Italian) solely

Sombre (French) dark, melancholy

Sommesso (Italian) subdued

Somma (Italian) utmost

Sommo (Italian) utmost

Son (French) sound

Sons (French) sounds

Sonabile (Italian) resonant, full toned

Sonare (Italian) to sound, to play, to resonate

Sonata an extended piece in several movements for a number of instrumental soloists, most commonly one, with instrumental accompaniment

Sonata cycle the multi-movement structure found in sonatas

Sonata da chiesa (Italian) usually a trio-sonata with four movements, slow-quick-slow-quick

Sonata-rondo a musical work that combines sonata and rondo forms

Sonate (German) sonata

Sonevole (Italian) sonorous, resonant

Song cycle a group of songs performed in an order establishing a musical continuity related to some underlying  theme

Song without words a piece for solo piano

Son montuno with richer rhythm

Sonnerie (French) sounding

Sono (Italian) sound

Sonore (French) sonorous

Sonoramente (Italian) sonorously

Sonorità (Italian) sonority

Sonorité (French) sonority

Sonoro (Italian) sonorous

Sons etouffes (French) damped sound

Sopra (Italian) on, above

Soprano Clef See clef in Staff, Barline, & Clef

Sordamente (Italian) softly, gently

Sordina (Italian) mute

Sordino (Italian) mute

Sor, Fernando (1778-1839) see Classical Guitarists and Composers

Sorgfalt (German) care

Sortie (French) exit, departure

Sostenendo (Italian) sustaining

Sostenente (Italian) sustained

Sostenido (Spanish) sharp sign

Sostenuto (Italian) sustained

Sotto voce (Italian) in lowered tones, softly

Soudainement (French) suddenly

Sound board a wooden board in a stringed instrument that enhances its resonance

Sound box hollow box shaped resonator, one face of which is the soundboard, that enhances its volume and tone of a stringed instrument

Sound check a thorough test of the sound system before a performance

Sound Hole A hole in the soundboard of a stringed instrument that enhances its volume and tone. A vibrating guitar top creates sound. The air displacement, through the Sound Hole, is what amplifies the sound. Making the hole too small reduces the displacement and lowers volume. A too large of a hole reduces velocity and in turn also loses volume. The ideal size of Sound Hole can vary with the size of the sound chamber.see Anatomy of a Classical Guitar

Soundboard Resonator consisting of a thin board whose vibrations reinforce the sound of the instrument. see Anatomy of a Classical Guitar

Sound reinforcement Amplifying an instrument just enough so that it can be heard, without the audience being aware that it is being amplified

Soundtrack a strip along the side of a film that contains optical coding for sound

Soupir French) a quarter-rest

Soupirant (French) sighing

Souple (French) flexible, supple

Sourd (French) muffled

Sourde (French) muffled

Sourdine (French) mute

Sous (French) under

Sousedska a slow Bohemian peasant dance in simple triple time

Soutenu (French) sustained

Sp…

Space interval between the lines on the staff where each line and each space indicate a different pitch

Spalted Tamarind An alternative wood for the back and sides of a classical guitar. see Wood Choices for Back & Sides see Alternative Wood Choices for Back & Sides see Anatomy of a Classical Guitar

Spandendo (Italian) expanding, getting more powerful

Spanish Cypress Also known as Mediterranean Cypress, it was originally introduced into Spain from Asia Minor centuries ago. Most flamenco makers prefer this traditional wood, but it’s becoming scarce and expensive. It has a creamy-yellowish color with occasional strong growth lines. see Wood Choices for Back & Sides see Alternative Wood Choices for Back & Sides see Anatomy of a Classical Guitar

Sparta (Italian) score

Spartita  (Italian) score

Spartito (Italian) score

Sparto (Italian) score

Spass (German) joke

Spasshaft  (German) jocular

Später (German) later

Spediendo (Italian) speeding, hurrying

Sperdendosi (Italian) fading away

Spianata (Italian) level, smoothed, even

Spianato (Italian) level, smoothed, even

Spiccato (Italian) separated, detached; a form of staccato bowing in which the bow is bounced on the string while the bow-stroke is restricted to the tip to produce rapid notes

Spiegando (Italian) becoming louder

Spiel (German) play

Spielen (German) to play

Spielend (German) playing, playful

Spill in jazz, a descending glissando that falls from the end of a note

Spinnlied (German) spinning song

Spinto (Italian) pushed, urged on

Spiritual a folksong with religious overtones associated with the American negro, hence its alternative name, negro spiritual

Spirante (Italian) dying away

Spirito (Italian) spirit, vigor

Spiritoso (Italian) spirited

Spiritosamente (Italian) spriritedly

Spitzig (German) pointed, cutting

Split note chords a chord in which one or more chord members are ‘split’ by adding a note a minor second away

Spöttisch (German) mocking

Sprezzatura a free style of musical performance that ignored strict tempo and rhythm

Springar Swedish and Norwegian dance for two people

Springdans Swedish and Norwegian dance in simple triple time

Springend (German) springing, bouncing

Springer an ornament consisting of the main note followed by the note above it followed by the note above that, then returning to the original main note

Sq…

Square dance a form of American dance, from folk genres and played on a fiddle, piano, guitar or banjo, usually performed by four couples facing each other, arranged in a square

Squillante (Italian) clear, ringing, sounding

Squillanti (Italian) clear, ringing, sounding

St…

Stabile (Italian) steady, firm

Staccatissimo (Italian) an extreme form of staccato, often taken to indicate that one should shorten the note thus marked to one quarter of its written length, the remaining three-quarters replaced with silence. See staccatissimo in Note Symbols

Staccato (Italian) a dot above the note indicating that the note thus marked should be shortened to half its written length, the second half replaced with silence. See staccato in Note Symbols

Staff a framework of five lines on which musical notation is written. see Staff, Barline, & Clef see Elements of Standard Notation for Classical Guitar  see Elements of Tablature for Classical Guitar

Stäker (German) stronger or louder

Stanchezza (Italian) wearily, in a weary manner

Ständchen (German) serenade

Standhaft (German) firm

Standhaftigkeit (German) firmness

Stark (German) strong or loud

Statt (German) instead of

Steea (Italian) same

Steel Wool Fine fibers of steel matted or woven together to form an abrasive for cleaning, smoothing, or polishing.

Steg (German) bridge

Stelle (German) place

Stellen (German) places

Stem See stem in Elements of a Musical Score see Elements of Standard Notation for Classical Guitar see Elements of Tablature for Classical Guitar

Stendendo (Italian) rallentando

Stentando (Italian) to play in a laborious manner, heavily and slightly slowing

Stentare (Italian) to play in a laborious manner, heavily and slightly slowing

Stentato (Italian) forced, loud, stentorian

Step an interval of a second

Sterbend (German) dying away

Stesse (Italian) same

Stessi (Italian) same

Steso (Italian) slow

Stesso (Italian) same

Stets (German) steadily, always

Stev Norwegian short songs

Stile (Italian) style

Still (German) quiet, calm

Stimmen (German) to tune

Stimmgabel (German) tuning fork

Stimmung (German) tuning, mood

Stinguendo (Italian) fading away

Stiracchiando (Italian) ritardando

Stiracchiato (Italian) ritardando

Stirando (Italian) ritardando

Stirato (Italian) ritardando

Stock arrangement the standard score of the work in contrast to an arrangement that has been produced especially for one particular band or ensemble

Stockend (German) slackening the time gradually

Stomp a lively, rhythmic jazz marked by a heavy beat

Stornello a Tuscan folk-song

Stracciacalando (Italian) prattling

Straccinato (Italian) ritardando

Straff (German) strict

Straffando (Italian) throwing off

Straffato (Italian) thrown off

Straffer (German) stricter

Straight Grained A piece of wood with grain that runs parallel.

Strain a series of contrasting sections found in rags and marches, often in duple meter with sixteen-measure themes or sections

Strascicando (Italian) heavy slurring

Strascinando (Italian) heavy slurring

Strascinato (Italian) heavy slurring

Strathspey a slow Scottish dance, often coupled with the quick reel

Stravagante (Italian) extravagant, fantastic

Straziante (Italian) tearing

Streich (German) stroke

Streng (German) strict

Strepito (Italian) noise

Strepitosamente (Italian) noisily, boisterously

Strepitoso (Italian) noisy  

Stretch out in jazz, an extended and often highly inventive improvisation in place of an anticipated shorter set of phrases

Stretching the Strings A physical method of settling classical guitar strings. see How to Change Classical Guitar Strings

Stretta (Italian) a passage at the end of an aria, act or ensemble, in which the tempo is accelerated to effect a climax

Stretto (Italian) accelerated, brought together

Strimpellata (Italian) strumming, scraping

Stringendo (Italian) squeezing together, accelerando

String(s) A strand of gut, wire, silk or nylon that, when bowed, plucked or struck, produces a sound determined by its tension, length and density. see How to Change Classical Guitar Strings see Anatomy of a Classical Guitar

String Height The height of a guitar string measured from the top of the twelfth fret to the bottom of the string.

String Life The length of time a set of guitar strings retains balance, tone, clarity, & sustain. see How to Change Classical Guitar Strings

Sting Markings a symbol used to indicate which string to play. see Elements of Standard Notation for Classical Guitar

String music Music especially composed for string instruments

String orchestra a moderately large ensemble form only of first and second violins, cellos and double basses

String quartet a quartet formed of one first violinist, one second violinist, one violist and one cellist

String Settling The occurrence of tension equalization of a guitar string between its playing portions and non-playing portions. see How to Change Classical Guitar Strings

String Slippage The movement of the guitar string poorly attached to a tuner. see How to Change Classical Guitar Strings

String Winder A tool used to simplify winding a guitar string to its tuner. see How to Change Classical Guitar Strings

Stringed instruments any musical instrument that produces sound by means of strings under appropriate tension that are set into vibration by being plucked   strummed, struck or bowed

Strings the section of the orchestra formed by members of the violin family but excluding harp, guitar, harpsichord, piano, viols ……

Strisciando (Italian) smooth, slurred, glissando

Strisciato (Italian) smooth, slurred, glissando

Stroll in jazz, a direction indicating that a performer should be silent

Stromentato (Italian) played by instruments

Stromenti (Italian) instruments

Stromento (Italian) instrument

Strong Accent  see strong accent in Note Symbols

Strophe (Greek) a metrical or musical unit that is repeated in a musical composition

Strophic (Greek) a metrical or musical unit that is repeated in a musical composition

Strum brushing over the strings of a stringed instrument

Strumenti (Italian) instruments

Strumento (Italian) instrument

Stück (German) piece

Studien (German) study, etude

Stürmend (German) stormy, passionate

Stürmisch (German) stormy, passionate

Style the way musical elements (melody, rhythm, harmony, dynamics, form, etc.) are presented; what distinguishes one performance from another

Style brisé an arpeggiated style

Su…

Su (Italian) on, near, up, above, upon

Suave (Italian) suave

Suavità (Italian) suavity

Subdivision breaking up a larger metrical pattern into smaller parts

Sub-dominant the fourth degree of the scale

Sub-dominant chord the chord which uses as its root the subdominant note of a key

Sub-dominant triad triad built on the fourth degree of the scale

Subito (Italian) suddenly

Subject a theme

Sub-mediant the sixth degree of the scale

Sub-mediant chord the chord which uses as its root the submediant note of a key

Sub-mediant triad triad built on the sixth degree of the scale

Substitute fingering alternative fingering

Sub-tonic the seventh degree of the scale

Subwoofer Speaker dedicated to reproducing very low frequencies. often placed on the floor

Sufi devotional Muslim music

Sugli (Italian) on the

Sui (Italian) on the

Sugudu Chinese plucked lute

Sui (Italian) on, near, up, above, upon

Suite a set of unrelated and usually short instrumental pieces

Suite de dances (French) a set of dances

Suivez (French) follow

Sul Korean twenty-five string zither used in court music

Sull (Italian) on, near, up, above, upon

Sulla (Italian) on, near, up, above, upon

Sulle (Italian) on, near, up, above, upon

Summend (German) humming

Sungion-mu (Korean) dance music for celebrating a victory

Suo (Italian) its own

Suoni (Italian) sounds

Suono (Italian) sound

Superba (Italian) proud

Superbo (Italian) proud

Superius the upper, or higher, voice or melody in a musical composition of two or more parts

Super-tonic the second degree of the scale

Super-tonic chord the chord which uses as its root the supertonic note of a key

Super-tonic triad triad built on the second degree of the scale

Suppliant (French) supplicating

Supplichevole (Italian) supplicating

Supplichevolmente (Italian) supplicating

Supprimez (French) put stop out of action, suppress

Sur (French) on, over

Sur la touché (French) on the fingerboard

Sur le chevalet (French) on the bridge

Surbahar a bass sitar, tuned anywhere from four steps to an octave lower than a regular sitar

Surtout (French) above all, especially

Suspended time very long static events, with nothing much else happening

Suspension a note that is held over, that is approached by itself, and resolved to the chord note by a tone or semitone after the chord is played

Süss (German) sweet

Sustain To keep in existence; maintain. See Dressing the Frets on a Classical Guitar

Sussurrante (Italian) lightly

Susurrando (Italian) whispering, murmuring

Sv…

Svegliando (Italian) brisk, alert

Svegliato (Italian) brisk, alert

Svelto (Italian) smart, quick, freely, lightly

Svolgimento (Italian) development

Sw…

Sweet Spots Over time a soundboard (and to a lesser extent, the back & sides) “learns” an ability to move more freely at often used frequencies. The classical guitar consists of approximately 40 major wooden parts, all glued together to hold their idle state. If the instrument vibrates regularly at set frequencies, these glue joints will open in such a way that the guitar will eventually begin to vibrate more freely with notable improvements in tone, response, dynamic range, and volume (Sweet Spots). see How to Change Classical Guitar Strings

Swing American style of jazz music characterized by big band instrumentation

Sy…

Syllabic a musical setting is syllabic when one and only one note is related to one syllable in the text

Sympathetic strings strings, that cannot be bowed or plucked, that resonate by means of their immediate proximity to other strings, that can be bowed or plucked, which are set very closely above them

sympathetic vibration the vibration of an object independently in response to tone sounded by a musical instrument of which the object is a part, or that of another instrument

Symphonia (Greek) symphony

Symphonie symphony

Symphonie concertante (French) featuring a few solo instruments and orchestra

Symphonique (French) symphonic

Symphonisch (German) symphonic

Symphony an extended piece for full orchestra, usually serious in nature and in several movements

Symphony orchestra an ensemble of instruments which may have in excess of 100 members

Syncopation where a silence or weak beat replaces the expected strong beat

Synthesizer an instrument that uses electronics to generate a large range of sounds, some meant to mimic real instruments and others that are completely new

Syvspring a popular dance from Jutland

System notation of a line of music including all the parts and voices involved, presented in a group of two or more staves which are joined together on the left hand side by a vertical bar and a brace

 

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